N gauge trains are the smallest of the three most popular sizes and by some accounts, second only in popularity to HO gauge. N gauge trains are built to a scale of 1:160, that is, one one hundred and sixtieth the size of the real locomotive or coach being depicted. The trains run on diminutive tracks that are spaced nine millimeters apart, hence the name N – for nine. If O gauge is the granddaddy of model railroading, N is the new kid on the block. Bachmann, the world’s biggest manufacturer of model train equipment has an extensive range of American N gauge locomotives and rolling stock.
Blu-ray uses a 405nm blue laser as opposed to a 650nm red laser for DVD, allowing it to achieve a much larger numerical aperture (0.85 as opposed to 0.60). This in turn allows the Blu-ray format to fit more data on a disc than DVD, even though both use the same size disc.
So, for the next month or two, the mold maker works together with machinists, apprentices, and other mold maker to fabricate all the shapes and pieces that comprise a finished mold. They need to cut steel with special cutters on very sophisticated machinery that can easily cost $150,000.00 each.
Injection Unit: this is where the plastic pellets are loaded into a hopper at the top of the injection unit. The pellets are fed into the main cylinder; this is where they are heated until they are liquefied. Inside the injection unit there is a screw which turns and mixes the plastic. Once this liquid plastic has reached the optimum for this product the injection process starts. The plastic is forced through a sprue and the pressure and speed are controlled by the screw or sometimes a ram depending on the type of machine.
First we will explain the difference between a CD-ROM and a CD-R. CD-ROMs are manufactured through the process of Plastic Injection Molds to form data with a plastic polycarbonate and is referred to as replication. CD Replication is more economical to use on larger run jobs above 500 pieces. CD-Rs are made by using a laser to burn marks in a special dye on a recordable disc and is referred to as duplication. The laser changes the form of the dye, encoding the information into it. CD Duplication is typically used on smaller job below 500 pieces.
Cooling: this part of the process lets the mold cool for the required period. If it is done too quickly the units can stick or become deformed once out of the machine.
Throughout the process, Frank continued to look for a material that would be strong enough to withstand a tremendous amount of force, but durable enough not to crack or break. It was during this process that some early models were sent out to different professional teams. And, to his surprise, Frank was contacted by the Detroit Red Wings. As a Michigan native, this was an incredible honor. Frank was actually able to meet with the equipment manager for the team. More amazing still is that the prototype being used by the players was not the final version of the product that Frank had envisioned. He was not aware that it had been sent to the teams until after the fact.
It is also just as cost saving to the printing industry because it is used to regulate temperatures in presses and rollers which helps to the reduction of stretching and bleeding. In doing this it decreases the time needed to print.